PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
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PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
ZoomInfo
PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
ZoomInfo
PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
ZoomInfo
PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
ZoomInfo
PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
ZoomInfo
PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
ZoomInfo
PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
ZoomInfo
PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
ZoomInfo
PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 
The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.
The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.
Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.
Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  
ZoomInfo

PRESERVING THE SHUKHOV TOWER, MOSCOW 

The Shukhov (or Shabolovka) tower in Polibino, Russia was designed by engineer Vladimir Shukhov in 1896 and built in 1920-22 at location about 15 minutes from the Kremlin. It was the first diagrid hyperboloid structure of its kind. The tower is made up of six hyperboloids (inward curving) in rotation, with steel gridshells. The gridshell has a diagrid (diagonally-gridded) structure. The hyperbolic conic and the diagrid structure mutually reinforce each other yet weigh relatively little. Because the structure is open, it is unaffected by winds. These qualities allow for the erection of tall buildings of minimal weight that are unaffected by wind sheer. The hyperbolic diagrid is economical as well: the Eiffel Tower is the same height as the Shukhov Tower, but steel used in the Russian tower weighs 2200 tons, while the French structure weighs in at 7300 tons.

The Shukhov tower was planned to be 600’ tall, but lack of sufficient steel resources capped it at 160’. It has served as a broadcasting tower for Moscow radio and television from through out the Soviet era and up to this day, although it has never been renovated and is in a serious state of deterioration.

Although the monument, has been long-recognized as one of the great achievements of the Soviet era and of Russian Constructivist architecture, in 2014 the Russian State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting, after being lobbied by the real estate developers and construction firms, announced plans to demolish the tower. The lot occupied by the tower is specially zoned for a 150’ structure in an area otherwise capped out at 5 stories. It was speculated that razing the Shukhov basically a developer’s ploy to build a skyscraper in an area where they are forbidden.

Shukhov built 200 such towers across Russia, only 20 of which survive today. The international outcry against this inexplicable and barbaric plan (imagine François Hollande suggesting the same for the Eiffel Tower) , which included architects Rem Koolhaas, Liz Diller and Norman Foster, was strong enough to cause the government to rescind the order, although they did not rule out its future demolition.  

6shukhov tower, shabolovka tower, moscow architecture - 20th c., soviet engineering, vladimir shukhov, hyperbolic diagrid structure, constructivism,

AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVIII: SECULAR IVORIES
The production of secular art—that is, art neither made for an ecclesiastical setting nor depicting religious imagery—emerges in the later thirteenth century and grows exponentially in the fourteenth century. Reflecting the relative stability and economic growth of Europe, members of the nobility around the year 1300 had the surplus resources to spend on personal luxury items, such as ivory combs, mirror cases, jewelry boxes and narrative diptychs. 
Specialized sculpture studios, mainly in Paris, produced ivories in quantity and brought them to market—they were not commissioned or made with any specific patron in mind. The ivory elephant tusks imported from Africa were extremely expensive (in England and Scandinavia, walrus tusks were also used); the curved, elongated shape of the tusk determined what types of objects could made from. Circular cross-sections, for example, were easy to cut and wasted the least of the raw material. Ivory is very soft and easy to carves and when burnished takes on a luminous, nacreous appearance. Many ivories were partially painted—either the background of the costumes to help the figures stand out from the ground. 
The subject matter almost exclusively consists of generalized “courtly love,” or amorous scenes, of the type found in the popular romances of the period. Mirror cases made of two ivory roundels that closed over a polished metal reflective surface were very well suited for such material. Well born couples engage in aristocratic pass-times like hunting with hawks, playing chess, riding and courting. The imagery is surprisingly lascivious for a period known for its extreme religiosity. In The London Game of Chess ivory, the way the man holds the tent pole and the angle of his knee are both fairly clear in their meaning; the tent pole meets the curtain above in another obvious visual joke; the woman has a deep drapery fold right where his knee is pointed; behind each stand servants, one with a bird sticking its beak into a hole, the other holding a chaplet, or a large hole next to the woman. The game of chess, as well as the hunt, were both metaphors for pursuit and conquest of the beloved.
Some mirror cases represent particular scenes in famous vernacular poems like the Siege of the Castle of Love from the Roman de la Rose; others depict love stories from Ovid, such as Pyramis and Thisbe, as seen in the jewelry box above. The same box depicts the legend of Aristotle’s wife Phyllis riding the philosopher like a mule, which alludes to the woman’s power over men in amorous contexts.
As literacy and prosperity increased, a market for personal writing tablets became popular, The were made of the hinged ivory panels that had wax on the inside in which one could write simple messages and then erase them by pressing the tablets such. One such tablet depicts a contemporary game called Hot Cockles, which involved a kind of slap and tickle and hiding under the lady’s dress. All of this is conducted under a row of Gothic pointed arches, usually symbols of sanctified space, but here denoting something more like refinement and modernity.
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AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVIII: SECULAR IVORIES
The production of secular art—that is, art neither made for an ecclesiastical setting nor depicting religious imagery—emerges in the later thirteenth century and grows exponentially in the fourteenth century. Reflecting the relative stability and economic growth of Europe, members of the nobility around the year 1300 had the surplus resources to spend on personal luxury items, such as ivory combs, mirror cases, jewelry boxes and narrative diptychs. 
Specialized sculpture studios, mainly in Paris, produced ivories in quantity and brought them to market—they were not commissioned or made with any specific patron in mind. The ivory elephant tusks imported from Africa were extremely expensive (in England and Scandinavia, walrus tusks were also used); the curved, elongated shape of the tusk determined what types of objects could made from. Circular cross-sections, for example, were easy to cut and wasted the least of the raw material. Ivory is very soft and easy to carves and when burnished takes on a luminous, nacreous appearance. Many ivories were partially painted—either the background of the costumes to help the figures stand out from the ground. 
The subject matter almost exclusively consists of generalized “courtly love,” or amorous scenes, of the type found in the popular romances of the period. Mirror cases made of two ivory roundels that closed over a polished metal reflective surface were very well suited for such material. Well born couples engage in aristocratic pass-times like hunting with hawks, playing chess, riding and courting. The imagery is surprisingly lascivious for a period known for its extreme religiosity. In The London Game of Chess ivory, the way the man holds the tent pole and the angle of his knee are both fairly clear in their meaning; the tent pole meets the curtain above in another obvious visual joke; the woman has a deep drapery fold right where his knee is pointed; behind each stand servants, one with a bird sticking its beak into a hole, the other holding a chaplet, or a large hole next to the woman. The game of chess, as well as the hunt, were both metaphors for pursuit and conquest of the beloved.
Some mirror cases represent particular scenes in famous vernacular poems like the Siege of the Castle of Love from the Roman de la Rose; others depict love stories from Ovid, such as Pyramis and Thisbe, as seen in the jewelry box above. The same box depicts the legend of Aristotle’s wife Phyllis riding the philosopher like a mule, which alludes to the woman’s power over men in amorous contexts.
As literacy and prosperity increased, a market for personal writing tablets became popular, The were made of the hinged ivory panels that had wax on the inside in which one could write simple messages and then erase them by pressing the tablets such. One such tablet depicts a contemporary game called Hot Cockles, which involved a kind of slap and tickle and hiding under the lady’s dress. All of this is conducted under a row of Gothic pointed arches, usually symbols of sanctified space, but here denoting something more like refinement and modernity.
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVIII: SECULAR IVORIES
The production of secular art—that is, art neither made for an ecclesiastical setting nor depicting religious imagery—emerges in the later thirteenth century and grows exponentially in the fourteenth century. Reflecting the relative stability and economic growth of Europe, members of the nobility around the year 1300 had the surplus resources to spend on personal luxury items, such as ivory combs, mirror cases, jewelry boxes and narrative diptychs. 
Specialized sculpture studios, mainly in Paris, produced ivories in quantity and brought them to market—they were not commissioned or made with any specific patron in mind. The ivory elephant tusks imported from Africa were extremely expensive (in England and Scandinavia, walrus tusks were also used); the curved, elongated shape of the tusk determined what types of objects could made from. Circular cross-sections, for example, were easy to cut and wasted the least of the raw material. Ivory is very soft and easy to carves and when burnished takes on a luminous, nacreous appearance. Many ivories were partially painted—either the background of the costumes to help the figures stand out from the ground. 
The subject matter almost exclusively consists of generalized “courtly love,” or amorous scenes, of the type found in the popular romances of the period. Mirror cases made of two ivory roundels that closed over a polished metal reflective surface were very well suited for such material. Well born couples engage in aristocratic pass-times like hunting with hawks, playing chess, riding and courting. The imagery is surprisingly lascivious for a period known for its extreme religiosity. In The London Game of Chess ivory, the way the man holds the tent pole and the angle of his knee are both fairly clear in their meaning; the tent pole meets the curtain above in another obvious visual joke; the woman has a deep drapery fold right where his knee is pointed; behind each stand servants, one with a bird sticking its beak into a hole, the other holding a chaplet, or a large hole next to the woman. The game of chess, as well as the hunt, were both metaphors for pursuit and conquest of the beloved.
Some mirror cases represent particular scenes in famous vernacular poems like the Siege of the Castle of Love from the Roman de la Rose; others depict love stories from Ovid, such as Pyramis and Thisbe, as seen in the jewelry box above. The same box depicts the legend of Aristotle’s wife Phyllis riding the philosopher like a mule, which alludes to the woman’s power over men in amorous contexts.
As literacy and prosperity increased, a market for personal writing tablets became popular, The were made of the hinged ivory panels that had wax on the inside in which one could write simple messages and then erase them by pressing the tablets such. One such tablet depicts a contemporary game called Hot Cockles, which involved a kind of slap and tickle and hiding under the lady’s dress. All of this is conducted under a row of Gothic pointed arches, usually symbols of sanctified space, but here denoting something more like refinement and modernity.
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVIII: SECULAR IVORIES
The production of secular art—that is, art neither made for an ecclesiastical setting nor depicting religious imagery—emerges in the later thirteenth century and grows exponentially in the fourteenth century. Reflecting the relative stability and economic growth of Europe, members of the nobility around the year 1300 had the surplus resources to spend on personal luxury items, such as ivory combs, mirror cases, jewelry boxes and narrative diptychs. 
Specialized sculpture studios, mainly in Paris, produced ivories in quantity and brought them to market—they were not commissioned or made with any specific patron in mind. The ivory elephant tusks imported from Africa were extremely expensive (in England and Scandinavia, walrus tusks were also used); the curved, elongated shape of the tusk determined what types of objects could made from. Circular cross-sections, for example, were easy to cut and wasted the least of the raw material. Ivory is very soft and easy to carves and when burnished takes on a luminous, nacreous appearance. Many ivories were partially painted—either the background of the costumes to help the figures stand out from the ground. 
The subject matter almost exclusively consists of generalized “courtly love,” or amorous scenes, of the type found in the popular romances of the period. Mirror cases made of two ivory roundels that closed over a polished metal reflective surface were very well suited for such material. Well born couples engage in aristocratic pass-times like hunting with hawks, playing chess, riding and courting. The imagery is surprisingly lascivious for a period known for its extreme religiosity. In The London Game of Chess ivory, the way the man holds the tent pole and the angle of his knee are both fairly clear in their meaning; the tent pole meets the curtain above in another obvious visual joke; the woman has a deep drapery fold right where his knee is pointed; behind each stand servants, one with a bird sticking its beak into a hole, the other holding a chaplet, or a large hole next to the woman. The game of chess, as well as the hunt, were both metaphors for pursuit and conquest of the beloved.
Some mirror cases represent particular scenes in famous vernacular poems like the Siege of the Castle of Love from the Roman de la Rose; others depict love stories from Ovid, such as Pyramis and Thisbe, as seen in the jewelry box above. The same box depicts the legend of Aristotle’s wife Phyllis riding the philosopher like a mule, which alludes to the woman’s power over men in amorous contexts.
As literacy and prosperity increased, a market for personal writing tablets became popular, The were made of the hinged ivory panels that had wax on the inside in which one could write simple messages and then erase them by pressing the tablets such. One such tablet depicts a contemporary game called Hot Cockles, which involved a kind of slap and tickle and hiding under the lady’s dress. All of this is conducted under a row of Gothic pointed arches, usually symbols of sanctified space, but here denoting something more like refinement and modernity.
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVIII: SECULAR IVORIES
The production of secular art—that is, art neither made for an ecclesiastical setting nor depicting religious imagery—emerges in the later thirteenth century and grows exponentially in the fourteenth century. Reflecting the relative stability and economic growth of Europe, members of the nobility around the year 1300 had the surplus resources to spend on personal luxury items, such as ivory combs, mirror cases, jewelry boxes and narrative diptychs. 
Specialized sculpture studios, mainly in Paris, produced ivories in quantity and brought them to market—they were not commissioned or made with any specific patron in mind. The ivory elephant tusks imported from Africa were extremely expensive (in England and Scandinavia, walrus tusks were also used); the curved, elongated shape of the tusk determined what types of objects could made from. Circular cross-sections, for example, were easy to cut and wasted the least of the raw material. Ivory is very soft and easy to carves and when burnished takes on a luminous, nacreous appearance. Many ivories were partially painted—either the background of the costumes to help the figures stand out from the ground. 
The subject matter almost exclusively consists of generalized “courtly love,” or amorous scenes, of the type found in the popular romances of the period. Mirror cases made of two ivory roundels that closed over a polished metal reflective surface were very well suited for such material. Well born couples engage in aristocratic pass-times like hunting with hawks, playing chess, riding and courting. The imagery is surprisingly lascivious for a period known for its extreme religiosity. In The London Game of Chess ivory, the way the man holds the tent pole and the angle of his knee are both fairly clear in their meaning; the tent pole meets the curtain above in another obvious visual joke; the woman has a deep drapery fold right where his knee is pointed; behind each stand servants, one with a bird sticking its beak into a hole, the other holding a chaplet, or a large hole next to the woman. The game of chess, as well as the hunt, were both metaphors for pursuit and conquest of the beloved.
Some mirror cases represent particular scenes in famous vernacular poems like the Siege of the Castle of Love from the Roman de la Rose; others depict love stories from Ovid, such as Pyramis and Thisbe, as seen in the jewelry box above. The same box depicts the legend of Aristotle’s wife Phyllis riding the philosopher like a mule, which alludes to the woman’s power over men in amorous contexts.
As literacy and prosperity increased, a market for personal writing tablets became popular, The were made of the hinged ivory panels that had wax on the inside in which one could write simple messages and then erase them by pressing the tablets such. One such tablet depicts a contemporary game called Hot Cockles, which involved a kind of slap and tickle and hiding under the lady’s dress. All of this is conducted under a row of Gothic pointed arches, usually symbols of sanctified space, but here denoting something more like refinement and modernity.
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVIII: SECULAR IVORIES
The production of secular art—that is, art neither made for an ecclesiastical setting nor depicting religious imagery—emerges in the later thirteenth century and grows exponentially in the fourteenth century. Reflecting the relative stability and economic growth of Europe, members of the nobility around the year 1300 had the surplus resources to spend on personal luxury items, such as ivory combs, mirror cases, jewelry boxes and narrative diptychs. 
Specialized sculpture studios, mainly in Paris, produced ivories in quantity and brought them to market—they were not commissioned or made with any specific patron in mind. The ivory elephant tusks imported from Africa were extremely expensive (in England and Scandinavia, walrus tusks were also used); the curved, elongated shape of the tusk determined what types of objects could made from. Circular cross-sections, for example, were easy to cut and wasted the least of the raw material. Ivory is very soft and easy to carves and when burnished takes on a luminous, nacreous appearance. Many ivories were partially painted—either the background of the costumes to help the figures stand out from the ground. 
The subject matter almost exclusively consists of generalized “courtly love,” or amorous scenes, of the type found in the popular romances of the period. Mirror cases made of two ivory roundels that closed over a polished metal reflective surface were very well suited for such material. Well born couples engage in aristocratic pass-times like hunting with hawks, playing chess, riding and courting. The imagery is surprisingly lascivious for a period known for its extreme religiosity. In The London Game of Chess ivory, the way the man holds the tent pole and the angle of his knee are both fairly clear in their meaning; the tent pole meets the curtain above in another obvious visual joke; the woman has a deep drapery fold right where his knee is pointed; behind each stand servants, one with a bird sticking its beak into a hole, the other holding a chaplet, or a large hole next to the woman. The game of chess, as well as the hunt, were both metaphors for pursuit and conquest of the beloved.
Some mirror cases represent particular scenes in famous vernacular poems like the Siege of the Castle of Love from the Roman de la Rose; others depict love stories from Ovid, such as Pyramis and Thisbe, as seen in the jewelry box above. The same box depicts the legend of Aristotle’s wife Phyllis riding the philosopher like a mule, which alludes to the woman’s power over men in amorous contexts.
As literacy and prosperity increased, a market for personal writing tablets became popular, The were made of the hinged ivory panels that had wax on the inside in which one could write simple messages and then erase them by pressing the tablets such. One such tablet depicts a contemporary game called Hot Cockles, which involved a kind of slap and tickle and hiding under the lady’s dress. All of this is conducted under a row of Gothic pointed arches, usually symbols of sanctified space, but here denoting something more like refinement and modernity.
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVIII: SECULAR IVORIES
The production of secular art—that is, art neither made for an ecclesiastical setting nor depicting religious imagery—emerges in the later thirteenth century and grows exponentially in the fourteenth century. Reflecting the relative stability and economic growth of Europe, members of the nobility around the year 1300 had the surplus resources to spend on personal luxury items, such as ivory combs, mirror cases, jewelry boxes and narrative diptychs. 
Specialized sculpture studios, mainly in Paris, produced ivories in quantity and brought them to market—they were not commissioned or made with any specific patron in mind. The ivory elephant tusks imported from Africa were extremely expensive (in England and Scandinavia, walrus tusks were also used); the curved, elongated shape of the tusk determined what types of objects could made from. Circular cross-sections, for example, were easy to cut and wasted the least of the raw material. Ivory is very soft and easy to carves and when burnished takes on a luminous, nacreous appearance. Many ivories were partially painted—either the background of the costumes to help the figures stand out from the ground. 
The subject matter almost exclusively consists of generalized “courtly love,” or amorous scenes, of the type found in the popular romances of the period. Mirror cases made of two ivory roundels that closed over a polished metal reflective surface were very well suited for such material. Well born couples engage in aristocratic pass-times like hunting with hawks, playing chess, riding and courting. The imagery is surprisingly lascivious for a period known for its extreme religiosity. In The London Game of Chess ivory, the way the man holds the tent pole and the angle of his knee are both fairly clear in their meaning; the tent pole meets the curtain above in another obvious visual joke; the woman has a deep drapery fold right where his knee is pointed; behind each stand servants, one with a bird sticking its beak into a hole, the other holding a chaplet, or a large hole next to the woman. The game of chess, as well as the hunt, were both metaphors for pursuit and conquest of the beloved.
Some mirror cases represent particular scenes in famous vernacular poems like the Siege of the Castle of Love from the Roman de la Rose; others depict love stories from Ovid, such as Pyramis and Thisbe, as seen in the jewelry box above. The same box depicts the legend of Aristotle’s wife Phyllis riding the philosopher like a mule, which alludes to the woman’s power over men in amorous contexts.
As literacy and prosperity increased, a market for personal writing tablets became popular, The were made of the hinged ivory panels that had wax on the inside in which one could write simple messages and then erase them by pressing the tablets such. One such tablet depicts a contemporary game called Hot Cockles, which involved a kind of slap and tickle and hiding under the lady’s dress. All of this is conducted under a row of Gothic pointed arches, usually symbols of sanctified space, but here denoting something more like refinement and modernity.
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVIII: SECULAR IVORIES
The production of secular art—that is, art neither made for an ecclesiastical setting nor depicting religious imagery—emerges in the later thirteenth century and grows exponentially in the fourteenth century. Reflecting the relative stability and economic growth of Europe, members of the nobility around the year 1300 had the surplus resources to spend on personal luxury items, such as ivory combs, mirror cases, jewelry boxes and narrative diptychs. 
Specialized sculpture studios, mainly in Paris, produced ivories in quantity and brought them to market—they were not commissioned or made with any specific patron in mind. The ivory elephant tusks imported from Africa were extremely expensive (in England and Scandinavia, walrus tusks were also used); the curved, elongated shape of the tusk determined what types of objects could made from. Circular cross-sections, for example, were easy to cut and wasted the least of the raw material. Ivory is very soft and easy to carves and when burnished takes on a luminous, nacreous appearance. Many ivories were partially painted—either the background of the costumes to help the figures stand out from the ground. 
The subject matter almost exclusively consists of generalized “courtly love,” or amorous scenes, of the type found in the popular romances of the period. Mirror cases made of two ivory roundels that closed over a polished metal reflective surface were very well suited for such material. Well born couples engage in aristocratic pass-times like hunting with hawks, playing chess, riding and courting. The imagery is surprisingly lascivious for a period known for its extreme religiosity. In The London Game of Chess ivory, the way the man holds the tent pole and the angle of his knee are both fairly clear in their meaning; the tent pole meets the curtain above in another obvious visual joke; the woman has a deep drapery fold right where his knee is pointed; behind each stand servants, one with a bird sticking its beak into a hole, the other holding a chaplet, or a large hole next to the woman. The game of chess, as well as the hunt, were both metaphors for pursuit and conquest of the beloved.
Some mirror cases represent particular scenes in famous vernacular poems like the Siege of the Castle of Love from the Roman de la Rose; others depict love stories from Ovid, such as Pyramis and Thisbe, as seen in the jewelry box above. The same box depicts the legend of Aristotle’s wife Phyllis riding the philosopher like a mule, which alludes to the woman’s power over men in amorous contexts.
As literacy and prosperity increased, a market for personal writing tablets became popular, The were made of the hinged ivory panels that had wax on the inside in which one could write simple messages and then erase them by pressing the tablets such. One such tablet depicts a contemporary game called Hot Cockles, which involved a kind of slap and tickle and hiding under the lady’s dress. All of this is conducted under a row of Gothic pointed arches, usually symbols of sanctified space, but here denoting something more like refinement and modernity.
ZoomInfo

AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVIII: SECULAR IVORIES

The production of secular art—that is, art neither made for an ecclesiastical setting nor depicting religious imagery—emerges in the later thirteenth century and grows exponentially in the fourteenth century. Reflecting the relative stability and economic growth of Europe, members of the nobility around the year 1300 had the surplus resources to spend on personal luxury items, such as ivory combs, mirror cases, jewelry boxes and narrative diptychs. 

Specialized sculpture studios, mainly in Paris, produced ivories in quantity and brought them to market—they were not commissioned or made with any specific patron in mind. The ivory elephant tusks imported from Africa were extremely expensive (in England and Scandinavia, walrus tusks were also used); the curved, elongated shape of the tusk determined what types of objects could made from. Circular cross-sections, for example, were easy to cut and wasted the least of the raw material. Ivory is very soft and easy to carves and when burnished takes on a luminous, nacreous appearance. Many ivories were partially painted—either the background of the costumes to help the figures stand out from the ground. 

The subject matter almost exclusively consists of generalized “courtly love,” or amorous scenes, of the type found in the popular romances of the period. Mirror cases made of two ivory roundels that closed over a polished metal reflective surface were very well suited for such material. Well born couples engage in aristocratic pass-times like hunting with hawks, playing chess, riding and courting. The imagery is surprisingly lascivious for a period known for its extreme religiosity. In The London Game of Chess ivory, the way the man holds the tent pole and the angle of his knee are both fairly clear in their meaning; the tent pole meets the curtain above in another obvious visual joke; the woman has a deep drapery fold right where his knee is pointed; behind each stand servants, one with a bird sticking its beak into a hole, the other holding a chaplet, or a large hole next to the woman. The game of chess, as well as the hunt, were both metaphors for pursuit and conquest of the beloved.

Some mirror cases represent particular scenes in famous vernacular poems like the Siege of the Castle of Love from the Roman de la Rose; others depict love stories from Ovid, such as Pyramis and Thisbe, as seen in the jewelry box above. The same box depicts the legend of Aristotle’s wife Phyllis riding the philosopher like a mule, which alludes to the woman’s power over men in amorous contexts.

As literacy and prosperity increased, a market for personal writing tablets became popular, The were made of the hinged ivory panels that had wax on the inside in which one could write simple messages and then erase them by pressing the tablets such. One such tablet depicts a contemporary game called Hot Cockles, which involved a kind of slap and tickle and hiding under the lady’s dress. All of this is conducted under a row of Gothic pointed arches, usually symbols of sanctified space, but here denoting something more like refinement and modernity.

6gothic ivory carving, medieval secular art, mirror valves, courtly love, castle of love, roman de la rose, medieval luxury goods,

moma:

Marcel Duchamp was born today in 1887. The title of this artwork is an instruction to the viewer: To Be Looked at (from the Other Side of the Glass) with One Eye, Close to, for Almost an Hour. The experience is said to produce a hallucinatory effect. 

[Marcel Duchamp. To Be Looked at (from the Other Side of the Glass) with One Eye, Close to, for Almost an Hour. Buenos Aires 1918.]

MARCEL DUCHAMP (1887 - 1968)
ZoomInfo
Camera
Leaf Aptus 75(LF7100 )/Other
ISO
50
Aperture
Exposure
1/20th
Focal Length

moma:

Marcel Duchamp was born today in 1887. The title of this artwork is an instruction to the viewer: To Be Looked at (from the Other Side of the Glass) with One Eye, Close to, for Almost an Hour. The experience is said to produce a hallucinatory effect. 

[Marcel Duchamp. To Be Looked at (from the Other Side of the Glass) with One Eye, Close to, for Almost an Hour. Buenos Aires 1918.]

MARCEL DUCHAMP (1887 - 1968)

Source: moma

6marcel duchamp, dadaism, modernism, appropriation art, readymade,

MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo
MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo
MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo
MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo
MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo
MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo
MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo
MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo
MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo
MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project:  Esherick House
Location:  Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator:  Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work. 
Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and  installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed. 
 Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting. 

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.
ZoomInfo

MODERN HOUSE II: LOUIS KAHN’S ESHERICK HOUSE

Architect:. Louis I. Kahn
Project: Esherick House
Location: Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia PA Date: 1959 - 61
Client: Margaret Esherick (bookseller and bibliophile).
Collaborator: Wharton Esherick (sculptor and carpenter)

Only nine of the many private residences designed by Louis Kahn (1901 - 1974) were built. Margaret Esherick asked Kahn to build her a house outside the city to serve as a retreat from the stresses and distractions of work.

Esherick was a bookseller, had a large personal library and loved to read. Kahn’s design reflects that interest: there are ample built-in bookcases in the living room, which is the full height of the house, and floods of natural light pour in to all rooms from the outsized windows that spanned much of the garden façade. The amount of light is controlled by a system of shutters. The large windows cannot be opened, so Kahn grouped the service areas of the house—kitchen, bathrooms, utility room-together at the left end of the house and installed multiple small windows that could be opened to provide ventilation where needed.

Esherick’s uncle, the sculptor and carpenter Wharton Esherick, designed and made the built-in furniture, cabinets, gallery, and paneling. Kahn allowed the warm wood tones to dominate and chose a beige stucco for the exterior to harmonize with it. Seated on the edge of a public park, the extensive use of wood allows the house to blend into its setting.

The Esherick House is a designated historic landmark, but privately owned. As such, it cannot be altered, expanded or significantly updated. It was recently offered on the market for $1.9 million, but failed to find a buyer. Eventually the house and its three-acre lot sold for $902,000 — an unbelievable price for a house of its importance.

6louis kahn, esherick house, modern architecture, historic landmarks - philadelphia,

ALISON KNOWLES: Make a Salad f

Fluxus artist Alison Knowles performs one of her earliest event scores and comments on it. Time: 2:57

6alison knowles, make a salad, fluxus, event score, performance art, john cage, american art - 1960s,

THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE
Architects: Richard Meier Associates 
Year: 1971-73
Location: Harbor Springs, MI
Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.
ZoomInfo
THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE
Architects: Richard Meier Associates 
Year: 1971-73
Location: Harbor Springs, MI
Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.
ZoomInfo
THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE
Architects: Richard Meier Associates 
Year: 1971-73
Location: Harbor Springs, MI
Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.
ZoomInfo
THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE
Architects: Richard Meier Associates 
Year: 1971-73
Location: Harbor Springs, MI
Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.
ZoomInfo
THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE
Architects: Richard Meier Associates 
Year: 1971-73
Location: Harbor Springs, MI
Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.
ZoomInfo
THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE
Architects: Richard Meier Associates 
Year: 1971-73
Location: Harbor Springs, MI
Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.
ZoomInfo
THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE
Architects: Richard Meier Associates 
Year: 1971-73
Location: Harbor Springs, MI
Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.
ZoomInfo
THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE
Architects: Richard Meier Associates 
Year: 1971-73
Location: Harbor Springs, MI
Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.
ZoomInfo
THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE
Architects: Richard Meier Associates 
Year: 1971-73
Location: Harbor Springs, MI
Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.
ZoomInfo

THE MODERN HOUSE I: RICHARD MEIER’S DOUGLAS HOUSE

Architects: Richard Meier Associates 

Year: 1971-73

Location: Harbor Springs, MI

Clients: Jim & Jean Douglas, owners Douglas Trucking, Grand Rapids MI

Meier recalls standing on the precipice of the cedar, birch and spruce covered slope that winds down to aquamarine shallows of Lake Michigan and thinking, Wow, this is great. “It seemed to me that we could build on it if, instead of entering at the bottom we entered from the top,” the architect recalls with exquisite understatement.

6richard meier, douglas house, le corbusier, michigan architecture,

DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
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DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo

DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL

"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.

From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.

This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 

Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.

O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.

6raphael sanzio, disegno, italian renaissance drawings, old master drawings, red chalk, vatican stanze, villa farnesina, chigi chapel, michelangelo, leonardo da vinci, leo x, julius ii della rovere, raffaello da urbino,

little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher


These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”
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little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher


These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”
ZoomInfo
little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher


These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”
ZoomInfo
little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher


These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”
ZoomInfo

little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher

These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.

Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”

(via aboyvenus)

Source: little-miss-melancholy

6françois boucher, marquise de pompadour, french portraiture - 18thc., dénis diderot, salon,

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