DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
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DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
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DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
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DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
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DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
ZoomInfo
DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL
"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.
From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.
This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 
Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.
O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.
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DISEGNO III: RAPHAEL

"The divine" Raphael Sanzio of Urbino (1483 - 1520), is the greatest draughtsman of the Western tradition. In his lifetime, his drawings were prized by collectors. The same remains true today: on 6 December 2012, a Raphael black-chalk drawing of a head of an apostle, from the collection of the 6th Duke of Devonshire, was sold at auction by Sotheby’s for £ 29.7 million ($ 50.7 million), a record for a work on paper. Before that sale, the record price for a drawing had been set by Raphael’s “Head of a Muse,” which was sold by Christie’s for £ 29.1 million on 8 November 2009. And in July 1984, Christie’s had sold a drawing by Raphael, also from the Chatsworth collection, for £ 3.3 million, a record for a drawing at that time. The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the Chatsworth Collection are the repositories of the finest Raphael drawings, attesting to the long-standing taste for the Renaissance master in England.

From Giorgio Vasari, ”The Life of Raphael of Urbino,” Lives of the Artists (1550/1568):

Over the whole, in truth, there seems to breathe a spirit of divinity, so beautiful are the figures, and such the nobility of the picture, which makes whoever studies it with attention marvel how a human brain, by the imperfect means of mere colors, and by excellence of draughtsmanship, could make painted things appear alive.

This work is in every part so stupendous, that even the cartoons are held in the greatest veneration; wherefore Messer Francesco Masini, a gentleman of Cesena who, without the help of any master, but giving his attention by himself from his earliest childhood, guided by an extraordinary instinct of nature, to drawing and painting, has painted pictures that have been much extolled by good judges of art, possesses, among his many drawings and some ancient reliefs in marble, certain pieces of the cartoon which Raffaello made for this story of Heliodorus, and he holds them in the estimation that they truly deserve. 

Albrecht Dürer, a most marvelous German painter, and an engraver of very beautiful copperplates, rendered tribute to Raffaello out of his own works, and sent to him a portrait of himself, a head, executed by him in gouache on a cloth of fine linen, which showed the same on either side, the lights being transparent and obtained without lead white, while the only grounding and coloring was done with watercolors, the white of the cloth serving for the ground of the bright parts. This work seemed to Raffaello to be marvelous, and he sent him, therefore, many drawings executed by his own hand, which were received very gladly by Albrecht.

O happy and blessed spirit, in that every man is glad to speak of thee, to celebrate thy actions, and to admire every drawing that thou didst leave to us! When this noble craftsman died, the art of painting might well have died also, seeing that when he closed his eyes, she was left as it were blind. And now for us who have survived him, it remains to imitate the good, nay, the supremely excellent method bequeathed to us by him as a pattern, and, as is called for by his merit and our obligations, to hold a most grateful remembrance of this in our minds, and to pay the highest honor to his memory with our lips. For in truth we have from him art, coloring, and invention harmonized and brought to such a pitch of perfection as could scarcely be hoped for; nor may any intellect ever think to surpass him.

6raphael sanzio, disegno, italian renaissance drawings, old master drawings, red chalk, vatican stanze, villa farnesina, chigi chapel, michelangelo, leonardo da vinci, leo x, julius ii della rovere, raffaello da urbino,

little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher


These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”
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little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher


These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”
ZoomInfo
little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher


These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”
ZoomInfo
little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher


These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”
ZoomInfo

little-miss-melancholy:

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 1756 by Francois Boucher

These are great details of Boucher’s widely-praised portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour, Louis XV’s mistress and Boucher’s most important patron.

Diderot, referred to Boucher’s sugary, light-weight art as “un vice agréable.”

(via aboyvenus)

Source: little-miss-melancholy

6françois boucher, marquise de pompadour, french portraiture - 18thc., dénis diderot, salon,

SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Broken Bands of Color in Four Directions 1 - 4 (2004)
New York, Museum of Modern Art
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SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Broken Bands of Color in Four Directions 1 - 4 (2004)
New York, Museum of Modern Art
ZoomInfo
SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Broken Bands of Color in Four Directions 1 - 4 (2004)
New York, Museum of Modern Art
ZoomInfo
SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Broken Bands of Color in Four Directions 1 - 4 (2004)
New York, Museum of Modern Art
ZoomInfo

SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)

Broken Bands of Color in Four Directions 1 - 4 (2004)

New York, Museum of Modern Art

6sol lewitt, minimalism, conceptual art,

SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Lines of one Inch in four Directions and four Colours, and all Combinations (Set of 16), (1971)
London, Tate Modern
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SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Lines of one Inch in four Directions and four Colours, and all Combinations (Set of 16), (1971)
London, Tate Modern
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SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Lines of one Inch in four Directions and four Colours, and all Combinations (Set of 16), (1971)
London, Tate Modern
ZoomInfo
SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Lines of one Inch in four Directions and four Colours, and all Combinations (Set of 16), (1971)
London, Tate Modern
ZoomInfo
SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Lines of one Inch in four Directions and four Colours, and all Combinations (Set of 16), (1971)
London, Tate Modern
ZoomInfo
SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Lines of one Inch in four Directions and four Colours, and all Combinations (Set of 16), (1971)
London, Tate Modern
ZoomInfo
SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)
Lines of one Inch in four Directions and four Colours, and all Combinations (Set of 16), (1971)
London, Tate Modern
ZoomInfo

SOL LEWITT (American, 1928 - 2007)

Lines of one Inch in four Directions and four Colours, and all Combinations (Set of 16), (1971)

London, Tate Modern

6sol lewitt, minimalism, conceptual art, modernism, lithography, american art - 20th c.,

AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVII: LOUIS IX AND THE CROWN OF LIÈGE
In 1239 Louis IX paid the enormous sum of 135,000 livres for a collection of Passion relics, including the Crown of Thorns, wood from the True Cross, and nails used to affix Christ to the cross. The relics, which had been in Constantinople since the 4th century, were sold to Louis by the Latin Emperor of Byzantium, Baudouin II, to fund the defense of the eastern empire against Muslim invaders, who had captured Jerusalem.
To house the most venerable relics in Christendom, Louis ordered the Sainte Chapelle to be built, in the heart of the royal palace, on the Ile de la Cité (the construction of which cost 40,000 livres—less than one third of the value of the relics). The chapel was, in effect, a monumental reliquary, and in its form and decoration, it closely resembles contemporary shrines and châsses. When the relics arrived in the royal domain, Louis himself carried them barefoot from Sens to Paris. The procession is depicted in the stained glass of the Sainte Chapelle, as is Christ wearing the Crown of Thorns.
Therefore, during the reign of Louis IX, crowns were both religious symbols as much as they were regalia. Christ was crowned the King of the Jews, and is now reigning over heaven, just as his agent on earth rules the realm.
The Crown of Liège not only alludes to relics in its form, it contains relics of the Crown of Thorns, the True Cross, the lance used to pierce Christ’s side and and several saints, given by Louis IX to the Dominicans of Liège in the 1260s. The nine relics were placed behind large, clear crystals, allowing them to see seen. Each crystal is surmounted by a Gothic pinnacle, a visual shorthand signifying sanctity. Angels bearings phylacteries, or speech scrolls that identify each of the relics (de ligno… - de corona Dû - Ioh Bapt. Mar. Magd. - de Martirib. - De virginib - De côfess. - De apostoli. - De lancea Dû). The form of the Crown of Liège therefore refers to the reliquary’s contents; to Christ’s kingship; and to the royal donor. The gold and precious stones, recall the description in Revelation of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The Mosan city of Liège was a metalworking center and the object was probably produced there, ordered either by Louis or the friars. The reliquary is dated to the decade during which the gift was made, 1260-70, at the end of Louis’ long reign. It was in the collection of the Prince of Saxony before it was acquired by the Louvre in 1947.
Louis IX died in 1270 near Tunis, while leading his second crusade to the Holy Land. This martyr’s death, combined with his well-known veneration of relics and support of the mendicant orders led to his canonization by Boniface VIII in 1297.  
More info from the Louvre’s Département des Objets d’art : Moyen Age
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVII: LOUIS IX AND THE CROWN OF LIÈGE
In 1239 Louis IX paid the enormous sum of 135,000 livres for a collection of Passion relics, including the Crown of Thorns, wood from the True Cross, and nails used to affix Christ to the cross. The relics, which had been in Constantinople since the 4th century, were sold to Louis by the Latin Emperor of Byzantium, Baudouin II, to fund the defense of the eastern empire against Muslim invaders, who had captured Jerusalem.
To house the most venerable relics in Christendom, Louis ordered the Sainte Chapelle to be built, in the heart of the royal palace, on the Ile de la Cité (the construction of which cost 40,000 livres—less than one third of the value of the relics). The chapel was, in effect, a monumental reliquary, and in its form and decoration, it closely resembles contemporary shrines and châsses. When the relics arrived in the royal domain, Louis himself carried them barefoot from Sens to Paris. The procession is depicted in the stained glass of the Sainte Chapelle, as is Christ wearing the Crown of Thorns.
Therefore, during the reign of Louis IX, crowns were both religious symbols as much as they were regalia. Christ was crowned the King of the Jews, and is now reigning over heaven, just as his agent on earth rules the realm.
The Crown of Liège not only alludes to relics in its form, it contains relics of the Crown of Thorns, the True Cross, the lance used to pierce Christ’s side and and several saints, given by Louis IX to the Dominicans of Liège in the 1260s. The nine relics were placed behind large, clear crystals, allowing them to see seen. Each crystal is surmounted by a Gothic pinnacle, a visual shorthand signifying sanctity. Angels bearings phylacteries, or speech scrolls that identify each of the relics (de ligno… - de corona Dû - Ioh Bapt. Mar. Magd. - de Martirib. - De virginib - De côfess. - De apostoli. - De lancea Dû). The form of the Crown of Liège therefore refers to the reliquary’s contents; to Christ’s kingship; and to the royal donor. The gold and precious stones, recall the description in Revelation of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The Mosan city of Liège was a metalworking center and the object was probably produced there, ordered either by Louis or the friars. The reliquary is dated to the decade during which the gift was made, 1260-70, at the end of Louis’ long reign. It was in the collection of the Prince of Saxony before it was acquired by the Louvre in 1947.
Louis IX died in 1270 near Tunis, while leading his second crusade to the Holy Land. This martyr’s death, combined with his well-known veneration of relics and support of the mendicant orders led to his canonization by Boniface VIII in 1297.  
More info from the Louvre’s Département des Objets d’art : Moyen Age
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVII: LOUIS IX AND THE CROWN OF LIÈGE
In 1239 Louis IX paid the enormous sum of 135,000 livres for a collection of Passion relics, including the Crown of Thorns, wood from the True Cross, and nails used to affix Christ to the cross. The relics, which had been in Constantinople since the 4th century, were sold to Louis by the Latin Emperor of Byzantium, Baudouin II, to fund the defense of the eastern empire against Muslim invaders, who had captured Jerusalem.
To house the most venerable relics in Christendom, Louis ordered the Sainte Chapelle to be built, in the heart of the royal palace, on the Ile de la Cité (the construction of which cost 40,000 livres—less than one third of the value of the relics). The chapel was, in effect, a monumental reliquary, and in its form and decoration, it closely resembles contemporary shrines and châsses. When the relics arrived in the royal domain, Louis himself carried them barefoot from Sens to Paris. The procession is depicted in the stained glass of the Sainte Chapelle, as is Christ wearing the Crown of Thorns.
Therefore, during the reign of Louis IX, crowns were both religious symbols as much as they were regalia. Christ was crowned the King of the Jews, and is now reigning over heaven, just as his agent on earth rules the realm.
The Crown of Liège not only alludes to relics in its form, it contains relics of the Crown of Thorns, the True Cross, the lance used to pierce Christ’s side and and several saints, given by Louis IX to the Dominicans of Liège in the 1260s. The nine relics were placed behind large, clear crystals, allowing them to see seen. Each crystal is surmounted by a Gothic pinnacle, a visual shorthand signifying sanctity. Angels bearings phylacteries, or speech scrolls that identify each of the relics (de ligno… - de corona Dû - Ioh Bapt. Mar. Magd. - de Martirib. - De virginib - De côfess. - De apostoli. - De lancea Dû). The form of the Crown of Liège therefore refers to the reliquary’s contents; to Christ’s kingship; and to the royal donor. The gold and precious stones, recall the description in Revelation of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The Mosan city of Liège was a metalworking center and the object was probably produced there, ordered either by Louis or the friars. The reliquary is dated to the decade during which the gift was made, 1260-70, at the end of Louis’ long reign. It was in the collection of the Prince of Saxony before it was acquired by the Louvre in 1947.
Louis IX died in 1270 near Tunis, while leading his second crusade to the Holy Land. This martyr’s death, combined with his well-known veneration of relics and support of the mendicant orders led to his canonization by Boniface VIII in 1297.  
More info from the Louvre’s Département des Objets d’art : Moyen Age
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVII: LOUIS IX AND THE CROWN OF LIÈGE
In 1239 Louis IX paid the enormous sum of 135,000 livres for a collection of Passion relics, including the Crown of Thorns, wood from the True Cross, and nails used to affix Christ to the cross. The relics, which had been in Constantinople since the 4th century, were sold to Louis by the Latin Emperor of Byzantium, Baudouin II, to fund the defense of the eastern empire against Muslim invaders, who had captured Jerusalem.
To house the most venerable relics in Christendom, Louis ordered the Sainte Chapelle to be built, in the heart of the royal palace, on the Ile de la Cité (the construction of which cost 40,000 livres—less than one third of the value of the relics). The chapel was, in effect, a monumental reliquary, and in its form and decoration, it closely resembles contemporary shrines and châsses. When the relics arrived in the royal domain, Louis himself carried them barefoot from Sens to Paris. The procession is depicted in the stained glass of the Sainte Chapelle, as is Christ wearing the Crown of Thorns.
Therefore, during the reign of Louis IX, crowns were both religious symbols as much as they were regalia. Christ was crowned the King of the Jews, and is now reigning over heaven, just as his agent on earth rules the realm.
The Crown of Liège not only alludes to relics in its form, it contains relics of the Crown of Thorns, the True Cross, the lance used to pierce Christ’s side and and several saints, given by Louis IX to the Dominicans of Liège in the 1260s. The nine relics were placed behind large, clear crystals, allowing them to see seen. Each crystal is surmounted by a Gothic pinnacle, a visual shorthand signifying sanctity. Angels bearings phylacteries, or speech scrolls that identify each of the relics (de ligno… - de corona Dû - Ioh Bapt. Mar. Magd. - de Martirib. - De virginib - De côfess. - De apostoli. - De lancea Dû). The form of the Crown of Liège therefore refers to the reliquary’s contents; to Christ’s kingship; and to the royal donor. The gold and precious stones, recall the description in Revelation of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The Mosan city of Liège was a metalworking center and the object was probably produced there, ordered either by Louis or the friars. The reliquary is dated to the decade during which the gift was made, 1260-70, at the end of Louis’ long reign. It was in the collection of the Prince of Saxony before it was acquired by the Louvre in 1947.
Louis IX died in 1270 near Tunis, while leading his second crusade to the Holy Land. This martyr’s death, combined with his well-known veneration of relics and support of the mendicant orders led to his canonization by Boniface VIII in 1297.  
More info from the Louvre’s Département des Objets d’art : Moyen Age
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVII: LOUIS IX AND THE CROWN OF LIÈGE
In 1239 Louis IX paid the enormous sum of 135,000 livres for a collection of Passion relics, including the Crown of Thorns, wood from the True Cross, and nails used to affix Christ to the cross. The relics, which had been in Constantinople since the 4th century, were sold to Louis by the Latin Emperor of Byzantium, Baudouin II, to fund the defense of the eastern empire against Muslim invaders, who had captured Jerusalem.
To house the most venerable relics in Christendom, Louis ordered the Sainte Chapelle to be built, in the heart of the royal palace, on the Ile de la Cité (the construction of which cost 40,000 livres—less than one third of the value of the relics). The chapel was, in effect, a monumental reliquary, and in its form and decoration, it closely resembles contemporary shrines and châsses. When the relics arrived in the royal domain, Louis himself carried them barefoot from Sens to Paris. The procession is depicted in the stained glass of the Sainte Chapelle, as is Christ wearing the Crown of Thorns.
Therefore, during the reign of Louis IX, crowns were both religious symbols as much as they were regalia. Christ was crowned the King of the Jews, and is now reigning over heaven, just as his agent on earth rules the realm.
The Crown of Liège not only alludes to relics in its form, it contains relics of the Crown of Thorns, the True Cross, the lance used to pierce Christ’s side and and several saints, given by Louis IX to the Dominicans of Liège in the 1260s. The nine relics were placed behind large, clear crystals, allowing them to see seen. Each crystal is surmounted by a Gothic pinnacle, a visual shorthand signifying sanctity. Angels bearings phylacteries, or speech scrolls that identify each of the relics (de ligno… - de corona Dû - Ioh Bapt. Mar. Magd. - de Martirib. - De virginib - De côfess. - De apostoli. - De lancea Dû). The form of the Crown of Liège therefore refers to the reliquary’s contents; to Christ’s kingship; and to the royal donor. The gold and precious stones, recall the description in Revelation of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The Mosan city of Liège was a metalworking center and the object was probably produced there, ordered either by Louis or the friars. The reliquary is dated to the decade during which the gift was made, 1260-70, at the end of Louis’ long reign. It was in the collection of the Prince of Saxony before it was acquired by the Louvre in 1947.
Louis IX died in 1270 near Tunis, while leading his second crusade to the Holy Land. This martyr’s death, combined with his well-known veneration of relics and support of the mendicant orders led to his canonization by Boniface VIII in 1297.  
More info from the Louvre’s Département des Objets d’art : Moyen Age
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVII: LOUIS IX AND THE CROWN OF LIÈGE
In 1239 Louis IX paid the enormous sum of 135,000 livres for a collection of Passion relics, including the Crown of Thorns, wood from the True Cross, and nails used to affix Christ to the cross. The relics, which had been in Constantinople since the 4th century, were sold to Louis by the Latin Emperor of Byzantium, Baudouin II, to fund the defense of the eastern empire against Muslim invaders, who had captured Jerusalem.
To house the most venerable relics in Christendom, Louis ordered the Sainte Chapelle to be built, in the heart of the royal palace, on the Ile de la Cité (the construction of which cost 40,000 livres—less than one third of the value of the relics). The chapel was, in effect, a monumental reliquary, and in its form and decoration, it closely resembles contemporary shrines and châsses. When the relics arrived in the royal domain, Louis himself carried them barefoot from Sens to Paris. The procession is depicted in the stained glass of the Sainte Chapelle, as is Christ wearing the Crown of Thorns.
Therefore, during the reign of Louis IX, crowns were both religious symbols as much as they were regalia. Christ was crowned the King of the Jews, and is now reigning over heaven, just as his agent on earth rules the realm.
The Crown of Liège not only alludes to relics in its form, it contains relics of the Crown of Thorns, the True Cross, the lance used to pierce Christ’s side and and several saints, given by Louis IX to the Dominicans of Liège in the 1260s. The nine relics were placed behind large, clear crystals, allowing them to see seen. Each crystal is surmounted by a Gothic pinnacle, a visual shorthand signifying sanctity. Angels bearings phylacteries, or speech scrolls that identify each of the relics (de ligno… - de corona Dû - Ioh Bapt. Mar. Magd. - de Martirib. - De virginib - De côfess. - De apostoli. - De lancea Dû). The form of the Crown of Liège therefore refers to the reliquary’s contents; to Christ’s kingship; and to the royal donor. The gold and precious stones, recall the description in Revelation of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The Mosan city of Liège was a metalworking center and the object was probably produced there, ordered either by Louis or the friars. The reliquary is dated to the decade during which the gift was made, 1260-70, at the end of Louis’ long reign. It was in the collection of the Prince of Saxony before it was acquired by the Louvre in 1947.
Louis IX died in 1270 near Tunis, while leading his second crusade to the Holy Land. This martyr’s death, combined with his well-known veneration of relics and support of the mendicant orders led to his canonization by Boniface VIII in 1297.  
More info from the Louvre’s Département des Objets d’art : Moyen Age
ZoomInfo
AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVII: LOUIS IX AND THE CROWN OF LIÈGE
In 1239 Louis IX paid the enormous sum of 135,000 livres for a collection of Passion relics, including the Crown of Thorns, wood from the True Cross, and nails used to affix Christ to the cross. The relics, which had been in Constantinople since the 4th century, were sold to Louis by the Latin Emperor of Byzantium, Baudouin II, to fund the defense of the eastern empire against Muslim invaders, who had captured Jerusalem.
To house the most venerable relics in Christendom, Louis ordered the Sainte Chapelle to be built, in the heart of the royal palace, on the Ile de la Cité (the construction of which cost 40,000 livres—less than one third of the value of the relics). The chapel was, in effect, a monumental reliquary, and in its form and decoration, it closely resembles contemporary shrines and châsses. When the relics arrived in the royal domain, Louis himself carried them barefoot from Sens to Paris. The procession is depicted in the stained glass of the Sainte Chapelle, as is Christ wearing the Crown of Thorns.
Therefore, during the reign of Louis IX, crowns were both religious symbols as much as they were regalia. Christ was crowned the King of the Jews, and is now reigning over heaven, just as his agent on earth rules the realm.
The Crown of Liège not only alludes to relics in its form, it contains relics of the Crown of Thorns, the True Cross, the lance used to pierce Christ’s side and and several saints, given by Louis IX to the Dominicans of Liège in the 1260s. The nine relics were placed behind large, clear crystals, allowing them to see seen. Each crystal is surmounted by a Gothic pinnacle, a visual shorthand signifying sanctity. Angels bearings phylacteries, or speech scrolls that identify each of the relics (de ligno… - de corona Dû - Ioh Bapt. Mar. Magd. - de Martirib. - De virginib - De côfess. - De apostoli. - De lancea Dû). The form of the Crown of Liège therefore refers to the reliquary’s contents; to Christ’s kingship; and to the royal donor. The gold and precious stones, recall the description in Revelation of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The Mosan city of Liège was a metalworking center and the object was probably produced there, ordered either by Louis or the friars. The reliquary is dated to the decade during which the gift was made, 1260-70, at the end of Louis’ long reign. It was in the collection of the Prince of Saxony before it was acquired by the Louvre in 1947.
Louis IX died in 1270 near Tunis, while leading his second crusade to the Holy Land. This martyr’s death, combined with his well-known veneration of relics and support of the mendicant orders led to his canonization by Boniface VIII in 1297.  
More info from the Louvre’s Département des Objets d’art : Moyen Age
ZoomInfo

AN INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL ART XVII: LOUIS IX AND THE CROWN OF LIÈGE

In 1239 Louis IX paid the enormous sum of 135,000 livres for a collection of Passion relics, including the Crown of Thorns, wood from the True Cross, and nails used to affix Christ to the cross. The relics, which had been in Constantinople since the 4th century, were sold to Louis by the Latin Emperor of Byzantium, Baudouin IIto fund the defense of the eastern empire against Muslim invaders, who had captured Jerusalem.

To house the most venerable relics in Christendom, Louis ordered the Sainte Chapelle to be built, in the heart of the royal palace, on the Ile de la Cité (the construction of which cost 40,000 livres—less than one third of the value of the relics). The chapel was, in effect, a monumental reliquary, and in its form and decoration, it closely resembles contemporary shrines and châsses. When the relics arrived in the royal domain, Louis himself carried them barefoot from Sens to Paris. The procession is depicted in the stained glass of the Sainte Chapelle, as is Christ wearing the Crown of Thorns.

Therefore, during the reign of Louis IX, crowns were both religious symbols as much as they were regalia. Christ was crowned the King of the Jews, and is now reigning over heaven, just as his agent on earth rules the realm.

The Crown of Liège not only alludes to relics in its form, it contains relics of the Crown of Thorns, the True Cross, the lance used to pierce Christ’s side and and several saints, given by Louis IX to the Dominicans of Liège in the 1260s. The nine relics were placed behind large, clear crystals, allowing them to see seen. Each crystal is surmounted by a Gothic pinnacle, a visual shorthand signifying sanctity. Angels bearings phylacteries, or speech scrolls that identify each of the relics (de ligno… - de corona Dû - Ioh Bapt. Mar. Magd. - de Martirib. - De virginib - De côfess. - De apostoli. - De lancea Dû). The form of the Crown of Liège therefore refers to the reliquary’s contents; to Christ’s kingship; and to the royal donor. The gold and precious stones, recall the description in Revelation of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The Mosan city of Liège was a metalworking center and the object was probably produced there, ordered either by Louis or the friars. The reliquary is dated to the decade during which the gift was made, 1260-70, at the end of Louis’ long reign. It was in the collection of the Prince of Saxony before it was acquired by the Louvre in 1947.

Louis IX died in 1270 near Tunis, while leading his second crusade to the Holy Land. This martyr’s death, combined with his well-known veneration of relics and support of the mendicant orders led to his canonization by Boniface VIII in 1297.  

More info from the Louvre’s Département des Objets d’art : Moyen Age

6louis ix, saint louis, sainte chapelle, true cross relics, baudouin ii, crown of liège, reliquaries, relics, crusades,

artofthedarkages:

75r & 167v, Gospels, Add MS 11848, British Library

To which I would add:  
British Library, MS Add. 11848 is an illuminated Carolingian Latin Gospel Book produced at the abbey of St Martin in Tours,  under the abbacy of Fridugisus, the successor of Alcuin, around 820-830. It contains the Vulgate translation of the four Gospels written on vellum in Carolingian minuscule with square and rustic capitals and uncials as display scripts. The manuscript has 219 extant folios which measure approximately 330 by 230 mm. The text is written in area of about 205 by 127 mm. In addition to the text of the Gospels, the manuscript contains the letter of St. Jerome to Pope Damasus and of Eusebius of Caesarea to Carpian, along with the Eusebian canon tables. There are prologues and capitula lists before each Gospel.
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artofthedarkages:

75r & 167v, Gospels, Add MS 11848, British Library

To which I would add:  
British Library, MS Add. 11848 is an illuminated Carolingian Latin Gospel Book produced at the abbey of St Martin in Tours,  under the abbacy of Fridugisus, the successor of Alcuin, around 820-830. It contains the Vulgate translation of the four Gospels written on vellum in Carolingian minuscule with square and rustic capitals and uncials as display scripts. The manuscript has 219 extant folios which measure approximately 330 by 230 mm. The text is written in area of about 205 by 127 mm. In addition to the text of the Gospels, the manuscript contains the letter of St. Jerome to Pope Damasus and of Eusebius of Caesarea to Carpian, along with the Eusebian canon tables. There are prologues and capitula lists before each Gospel.
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artofthedarkages:

75r & 167v, Gospels, Add MS 11848, British Library

To which I would add:  

British Library, MS Add. 11848 is an illuminated Carolingian Latin Gospel Book produced at the abbey of St Martin in Tours,  under the abbacy of Fridugisus, the successor of Alcuin, around 820-830. It contains the Vulgate translation of the four Gospels written on vellum in Carolingian minuscule with square and rustic capitals and uncials as display scripts. The manuscript has 219 extant folios which measure approximately 330 by 230 mm. The text is written in area of about 205 by 127 mm. In addition to the text of the Gospels, the manuscript contains the letter of St. Jerome to Pope Damasus and of Eusebius of Caesarea to Carpian, along with the Eusebian canon tables. There are prologues and capitula lists before each Gospel.

Source: artofthedarkages

6carolingian art, illuminated manuscripts, service books, monastic scriptorium, st martin, tours,

MARK GROTJAHN: BUTTERFLY PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS
The so-called Butterfly paintings and drawings of Mark Grotjahn (American, b. 1968) combine analytical hard-edged abstraction and one-point perspective to make 2D images appear as 3D objects. This type of abstraction is the means by which the perspective system reveals itself—and vice versa. They consist of two distinct abstract and theoretical universes that neither cancel each other out, nor represent anything. With two means and no ends, one would expect a more ascetic, conceptualist type of image, but Grotjahn’s paintings are lavishly decorative and unabashedly entertaining. This lack of anxiety about the picture plane, flatness, figuration and illusionism is the clearest sign that the modernist endgame has, in fact, ended. 
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MARK GROTJAHN: BUTTERFLY PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS
The so-called Butterfly paintings and drawings of Mark Grotjahn (American, b. 1968) combine analytical hard-edged abstraction and one-point perspective to make 2D images appear as 3D objects. This type of abstraction is the means by which the perspective system reveals itself—and vice versa. They consist of two distinct abstract and theoretical universes that neither cancel each other out, nor represent anything. With two means and no ends, one would expect a more ascetic, conceptualist type of image, but Grotjahn’s paintings are lavishly decorative and unabashedly entertaining. This lack of anxiety about the picture plane, flatness, figuration and illusionism is the clearest sign that the modernist endgame has, in fact, ended. 
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MARK GROTJAHN: BUTTERFLY PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS
The so-called Butterfly paintings and drawings of Mark Grotjahn (American, b. 1968) combine analytical hard-edged abstraction and one-point perspective to make 2D images appear as 3D objects. This type of abstraction is the means by which the perspective system reveals itself—and vice versa. They consist of two distinct abstract and theoretical universes that neither cancel each other out, nor represent anything. With two means and no ends, one would expect a more ascetic, conceptualist type of image, but Grotjahn’s paintings are lavishly decorative and unabashedly entertaining. This lack of anxiety about the picture plane, flatness, figuration and illusionism is the clearest sign that the modernist endgame has, in fact, ended. 
ZoomInfo
MARK GROTJAHN: BUTTERFLY PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS
The so-called Butterfly paintings and drawings of Mark Grotjahn (American, b. 1968) combine analytical hard-edged abstraction and one-point perspective to make 2D images appear as 3D objects. This type of abstraction is the means by which the perspective system reveals itself—and vice versa. They consist of two distinct abstract and theoretical universes that neither cancel each other out, nor represent anything. With two means and no ends, one would expect a more ascetic, conceptualist type of image, but Grotjahn’s paintings are lavishly decorative and unabashedly entertaining. This lack of anxiety about the picture plane, flatness, figuration and illusionism is the clearest sign that the modernist endgame has, in fact, ended. 
ZoomInfo
MARK GROTJAHN: BUTTERFLY PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS
The so-called Butterfly paintings and drawings of Mark Grotjahn (American, b. 1968) combine analytical hard-edged abstraction and one-point perspective to make 2D images appear as 3D objects. This type of abstraction is the means by which the perspective system reveals itself—and vice versa. They consist of two distinct abstract and theoretical universes that neither cancel each other out, nor represent anything. With two means and no ends, one would expect a more ascetic, conceptualist type of image, but Grotjahn’s paintings are lavishly decorative and unabashedly entertaining. This lack of anxiety about the picture plane, flatness, figuration and illusionism is the clearest sign that the modernist endgame has, in fact, ended. 
ZoomInfo
MARK GROTJAHN: BUTTERFLY PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS
The so-called Butterfly paintings and drawings of Mark Grotjahn (American, b. 1968) combine analytical hard-edged abstraction and one-point perspective to make 2D images appear as 3D objects. This type of abstraction is the means by which the perspective system reveals itself—and vice versa. They consist of two distinct abstract and theoretical universes that neither cancel each other out, nor represent anything. With two means and no ends, one would expect a more ascetic, conceptualist type of image, but Grotjahn’s paintings are lavishly decorative and unabashedly entertaining. This lack of anxiety about the picture plane, flatness, figuration and illusionism is the clearest sign that the modernist endgame has, in fact, ended. 
ZoomInfo
MARK GROTJAHN: BUTTERFLY PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS
The so-called Butterfly paintings and drawings of Mark Grotjahn (American, b. 1968) combine analytical hard-edged abstraction and one-point perspective to make 2D images appear as 3D objects. This type of abstraction is the means by which the perspective system reveals itself—and vice versa. They consist of two distinct abstract and theoretical universes that neither cancel each other out, nor represent anything. With two means and no ends, one would expect a more ascetic, conceptualist type of image, but Grotjahn’s paintings are lavishly decorative and unabashedly entertaining. This lack of anxiety about the picture plane, flatness, figuration and illusionism is the clearest sign that the modernist endgame has, in fact, ended. 
ZoomInfo
MARK GROTJAHN: BUTTERFLY PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS
The so-called Butterfly paintings and drawings of Mark Grotjahn (American, b. 1968) combine analytical hard-edged abstraction and one-point perspective to make 2D images appear as 3D objects. This type of abstraction is the means by which the perspective system reveals itself—and vice versa. They consist of two distinct abstract and theoretical universes that neither cancel each other out, nor represent anything. With two means and no ends, one would expect a more ascetic, conceptualist type of image, but Grotjahn’s paintings are lavishly decorative and unabashedly entertaining. This lack of anxiety about the picture plane, flatness, figuration and illusionism is the clearest sign that the modernist endgame has, in fact, ended. 
ZoomInfo

MARK GROTJAHN: BUTTERFLY PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS

The so-called Butterfly paintings and drawings of Mark Grotjahn (American, b. 1968) combine analytical hard-edged abstraction and one-point perspective to make 2D images appear as 3D objects. This type of abstraction is the means by which the perspective system reveals itself—and vice versa. They consist of two distinct abstract and theoretical universes that neither cancel each other out, nor represent anything. With two means and no ends, one would expect a more ascetic, conceptualist type of image, but Grotjahn’s paintings are lavishly decorative and unabashedly entertaining. This lack of anxiety about the picture plane, flatness, figuration and illusionism is the clearest sign that the modernist endgame has, in fact, ended. 

6mark grotjahn, butterfly paintings, american painting - 21st c., conceptual abstraction, modernism, perspective,

ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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ED RUSCHA II: MOUNTAIN SERIES
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